Category Archives: Blogs

Feminists, Y’all are Sleeping on Country Music!

by Jamie Canavan of LOUD WOMEN Ireland

The Love Junkies, The Highwomen, the Pistol Annies: women in country music are challenging the radio play status quo and have learned that they are stronger in groups – super groups.

I have been a country music fan since I heard Martina McBride’s ‘Independence Day’ covered by a local band at my hometown’s Strawberry Fair. I was just a kid but I was struck by the fact that a song with a chorus seemingly about 4th of July Patriotism was actually about fleeing domestic violence and small-town judgments. At a young age, I delved deeper into a love of country music for that reason – the lyrics said so much so simply. They spoke about daily life problems in a way that I never heard before in other genres.

I stumbled upon an album by Lori McKenna and I thought to myself, ‘wow this is an entire album of covers of some of my favourite songs.’ Eventually I figured out that those were in fact not covers but the original songs, sang by the prolific song writer herself. McKenna is the pen behind many of country music’s top hits such as Tim McGraw’s Humble & Kind and Little Big Town’s Sober. Lori McKenna, Liz Rose, and Hillary Lindsey make up the Love Junkies songwriting team and going down the rabbit hole of all songs written by these women is a journey worth taking. By forming a song writing team, these powerful song writers leverage more industry prowess. Check out this playlist.

Source: @JenniferNettles on Instagram

At the Country Music Association Awards in 2019, Sugarland’s Jennifer Nettles donned a dress with a cape that stated, ‘play our f***ing records.’ Women artists were being played at an all-time low by country music radio across the United States in 2019 despite their popularity on streaming platforms. This is not the first time that country radio did not reflect country popularity. Little Big Town’s ‘Girl Crush’ (written by the Love Junkies) was refused by many country stations in 2014 for its LGBTQA+ connotations but ended up topping the Billboard charts in spite of this. The Chicks’ single ‘Not Ready to Make Nice’ and album Taking the Long Way were extremely successful after the group was effectively blacklisted on country radio for their criticism of George Bush.

Women in country music realise they are stronger together and it is beautiful to see. The Pistol Annies is a super group made up of Angaleena Presley, Ashley Monroe, and Miranda Lambert. Each artist brings a different flavour and each of their three albums will speak to anyone with a bit of family dysfunction, financial struggles, love of partying, or who is trying to reclaim themselves after a break-up. Their voices blend so gorgeously together reminiscent of old hymns while singing about taking a man’s money and running.

The Highwomen, named in honour of the Highwaymen (Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson, and Kris Kristofferson) is made up of Maren Morris, Brandi Carlisle, Amanda Shires, and Natalie Hemby with appearances from Yola and Sheryl Crowe. Their first single ‘Redesigning Women’ gives a nod to the 1980s sitcom Designing Women. It’s a fun feminist bop that will make you want to get shit done that day. One of the next songs they released from their first album was ‘Highwomen’ written and modelled after the Highwaymen’s single ‘Highwayman.’ This song is SO important for country music history. It opens with a pro-immigrant lyric about a woman who dies crossing into the United States but whose family survived the journey. It moves on to a verse about a woman who was hung in the Salem Witch Trials. Then comes in Yola’s verse, this verse will send chills down your spine as she sings about being shot and killed as a Freedom Rider during the US Civil Rights Movement – something very pertinent to today’s climate. Brandi Carlisle is married to a woman and they have two children. She has sang about the struggles of becoming a parent in an LGBTQA+ marriage in her song ‘the Mother.’ On the Highwomen’s album, she highlights the lack of discussion and awareness about LGBTQA+ relationships in her song ‘If She Ever Leaves Me’ – I’ve loved her in secret, I’ve loved her out loud…if she ever leaves me, it won’t be for you. This may seem insignificant in any other genre but in the country scene, songs such as this are very important to stigma break.

My love of women in country is all about the relatability. Angaleena Presley, Ashley McBryde, the Pistol Annies, Sunny Sweeney, Nicolette Hayford, and Lori McKenna have all sang about small-town drug epidemics, addiction, and hypocrisy– the minister’s wife told a bold face lie to protect her daughter’s name, when half of the congregation was hooked on the very same thing (Pain Pills – Angaleena Presley). There are countless songs about the shame and stigma relating to unplanned pregnancies. I would LOVE to see a song about abortion care, and while it’s definitely alluded to, I think it will be a little while before I finally get that wish. Domestic violence is another topic highlighted significantly in the genre and this is very important for women, especially those in rural areas who need access to messages of support – it ain’t love if it’s mean, Evangeline (Little Big Town). Maybe you drank a bit too much last night and you’re coming down with a case of the fear, throw on ‘Ugly Lights or Dark Bars’ by Miranda Lambert – I really hate to say I’m turning into a cliché, I’m hopin’ that nobody brings it up. I have been seeing so much love for Taylor Swift’s new album Folklore, if you’re loving that do yourself a favour and deep dive into this world. It mixes well with Bikini Kill or Pillow Queens as well.

Campaign To Get A Woman Headliner at Download 2021

Guest blog by Rosie Solomon

Do you remember the time when photos of festival line-ups with the male acts blacked out were floating around the internet? These now-incredibly empty and sparse photos went viral, and brought to our attention yet another knock-on effect that this man’s world brings us – the lack of representation in the music industry. And if you think pop and indie festivals are bad, wait ‘til you hear about rock and metal.

Take Download Festival for example. One of the leading names in the rock and metal world, Download Festival has been running for 17 years (30 years when considering it as a follow-up to Monsters of Rock, which started in 1980) and not once has there been a woman in the headline slot. Not as a bassist, drummer, guitarist, singer or anything else. During last year’s festival, only two women were on the main stage over the entire weekend. And one of them was a featured artist as part of Smashing Pumpkins’ set (Myrkur). The other was Yolandi from Die Antwoord.

Andy Copping and the other bookers have let us down once again with the line up announcements for 2020 – there are three headliners who, not only are (as usual) all-male acts, but have each headlined multiple times before. If we don’t widen the definition of what constitutes a “rock ‘n’ roll legend”, it will remain an exclusive club forever. As philosopher and composer Claire van Kampen says, “without role models you can’t feel empowered or inspired to do the job”. Without womxn headlining this festival or even getting equal space on the bill, how are new non-male musicians supposed to feel inspired to work hard at their craft?

This is, obviously, only one small symptom of the much wider problem that the patriarchy presents us. But, since we can’t take down the patriarchy all at one (however much we’d like to), we can start by tackling one of the smaller problems. It’s not going to be easy. Misogyny is rife in the world of rock and metal. How many female rock/metal musicians have you heard recently? It’s less likely that you will hear about women in rock because they don’t get as much publicity. Women playing instruments as well as/ better than men in a genre of music notorious for its testosterone-fuelled power? Unthinkable.

Luckily for us, there are some women out there who want to see a change and are doing something about it. Rosie, Sophie and Nicky were headbanging at the front of Nova Twins’ Download set when a realisation dawned on them simultaneously. Why aren’t more bands as badass as these ladies given more of a platform? Why were JINJER, an internet sensation and all-round fantastic band, delegated to the smallest tent? Why was there only one woman on the main stage on the line-up?

Nova Twins – photo (c) Keira Anee 2019

Conducting some research once the headbanging was over, this trio of gal pals realised that this has always been the case. Download has never had a woman in the headline slot. This, they decided, needs to change.

Our heroines have created a Facebook page to support this campaign. The aim to get this to change by 2021 might be a little ambitious, but hey, no harm in aiming high. The page features a song by a non-man every few days to show just how wide and varied the choices could be. This can include female-led acts from the history of rock music as well as some modern-day options for bands who could realistically play in the headline slot.

Attached to this Facebook page is a petition which needs more signatures! Please sign the petition; liking the page alone is not enough. Please send us your suggestions for more artists we can share on the page! Any new non-male rock and metal acts are welcome! You can find the campaign page and petition below, or search #DLGRL2021 on Twitter! Please like, sign, tweet, share and keep making noise! We’re not going to shut up until we get change.

Facebook page:



Good Shit That Happened in 2019

There was undeniably a fuck ton of Bad Shit that happened this year, but let’s end it with a look back at some of the Good Shit we’ve witnessed! Team LOUD WOMEN members Keira, Lucy, Karis, Chris, Tony and Cassie told us which bits of 2019 were their Top Shit.

Photo by Keira Anee – Bikini Kill at Brixton, June 2019

Keira Anee: The picking Up The Pieces EP By The Other Ones deserves a mention I think! Plus I loved the Nova Twins‘ releases, the emergence of Big Sea Creature, every gig I saw Gold Baby, Gaygirl, Junodef, Calva Louise, Ghost Car, Lilith Ai and Cocaine Piss play and a great unexpected album by Amy Studt. Discovered Straight Girl, Sudan Archives, Secondhand Underpants, The Empty Page, Cable Ties and loved seeing Adia Victoria, Gaptooth and band, Pleasure Venom, Miss June and LIINES live! Dammit – and LibraLibra for sure!

Lucy Morgan: Bikini Kill gig, isn’t it.

Cassie Fox: Yessssss. Seeing Bikini Kill kicking supreme ass this summer was hugely inspirational. On smaller stages though, LOUD WOMEN has done a lot this year … we’ve put on some amazing bands, in London, New York, LA and Perth. Too many to mention here (maybe I’ll do a separate 2019 hall-of-fame!) but extra special joy was sparked by T-Bitch, Slut Magic, The Noise and the Naive, GGAllan Partridge, Miss Eaves, HAVVK, Shitsick, Gaptooth, Hagar the Womb, and – fuck it I’ll say it – my brilliant I, Doris, who I am superproud of achieving so much this year. And we got to put on a gig at the Royal Albert Hall, with the awesome ILL! My top highlight was of course LOUD WOMEN Fest in September, where Pleasure Venom absolutely blew my head off and completely made all of the hard work organising the festival worth it.

Karis: For me, DEFINITELY seeing Bikini Kill for the first time and seeing the Gossip for the first time in a long time. But particularly getting to see Big Joanie support both of these bands – I’m so happy that they’re doing so well!

Chris Fox: I really liked that Misfortune Cookie Record. And the Lakes record – the Constance LP. And I really liked Pleasure Venom – I thought they were amazing at LOUD WOMEN Fest. Those are my top LOUD WOMEN things of the year.

Hannah from ARXX – photo by Keira Anee

Tony Rounce: “Good shit that happened in 2019”? How much space have I got!
The unstoppable rise of ARXX on their way to future world domination, the impossible not-to-adore double whammy emergence of the Slugs and Breakup Haircut, the Phoenix-like arrival of Big Sea Creature, truly great records from all of the aforementioned except the yet-to-debut BSC – plus Gaptooth, Personal Best, The Other Ones, Scrounge and Lauran Hibberd, beautiful live and vinyl memorials to Long Teeth, Loud Women 4 and the prospect of Loud Women 5, some super download-only stuff from Lemondaze, Goddammit Jeremiah, Party Fears, I, Doris and above all Currls, great gigs and the prospect of great recordings from newbies Lime and Wife Swap USA, the rebranding of Cryptic Street as Genn (although they’ll always be CS to me), the double-headed vinyl 45 of the year in Bloom’s ‘Ground’ and ‘Escape’, great shows from other old favourites Nervous Twitch, Calva Louise and the Regrettes, a rare chance to see the wonderful Catlow Morris on another wet night in New Cross – so much more besides, and did I mention ARXX (who are always worth a second mention if not more).

“Best good shit gig day of 2019” was the Saturday of the Great Escape Festival in Brighton in May, started it by seeing Cryptic Street in New Cross in the afternoon and ended it by seeing Cryptic Street (again!) at 1AM on Sunday in Brighton, with gigs from Bloom, Lime and ARXX (there they are again!) in between…

“Bad shit that happened in 2019?” Mercifully very little that affected my listening habits, but I’m sad that Wolf Girl called it a day, Queen Zee and the Sasstones fragmented and my lovely, completely adored Bloom went on a hiatus from which I hope with all my heart they will return…

…I’ll raise a glass to the oncoming new decade with the same optimism that I’m saying goodbye to the current one. Let’s try to keep it LOUD!

Dolly Daggerz of Tokyo Taboo: “I’ve been sexually assaulted so many times I can no longer count”

Article originally published on Louder Than War

Dolly Daggerz is the fiery powerhouse behind, at the front of, and often twirling round a pole high above rock band Tokyo Taboo. She recently disclosed online that she had been sexually assaulted during a performance – an assault further compounded by vitriolic backlash from internet commenters keen to blame her for the assault. Clearly some still have lessons to learn from the #metoo movement. With those lessons in mind, Dolly writes about the experience here in her own words (as told to Cassie Fox).

I’ve been sexually assaulted so many times I can no longer count. This is not me ‘bragging’. This is me being brutally honest.  

I’ve found myself in the most absurd and, at times, dangerous situations. The most extreme: Once a man who claimed he was an A&R executive locked me in a room and told me I couldn’t leave until I had sex with him. Luckily I got away, but when I spoke about reporting him I was talked out of it by a barrister friend of mine. He said, ‘Look at your sexy image. No jury will care.’ This seems to be a common theme: If a woman is attractive she becomes the ‘temptress,’ the one in the wrong. Poor men are ‘confused’ and can’t help themselves.  

Now that I’ve added a pole onstage, things have gone from bad to worse, in terms of unwanted sexual attention. But I am not to blame for being a ‘pole addict’. Pole has simply exaggerated the issue that has been there throughout my life from the age of fourteen.  

I remember once walking along a busy main road in the middle of the day. A guy approached me from behind, put his hand up my skirt, and asked ‘Can I have your phone number?’ Seemed a little odd that he felt he could grab what he liked and then ask for my number. How about a simple, ‘Hello?’ Or just leave me alone as I walk along the street with headphones on? He seemed shocked when I was angry, as if he had no idea what he was doing was disgusting and actually illegal. He quickly ran away when I mentioned the police. A common reaction. It’s just ‘a bit of fun’ and that I need to ‘lighten up.’ Such casual assault, as if it doesn’t mean anything to these creeps. 

Now, men, I know this isn’t all of you. And I know some women who haven’t experienced anything like this (albeit very few, after the ‘me too’ movement revealed how awful and widespread this problem is). But there are lots of instances in my life like this. You can victim-shame and blame me, or you can wake up and realise that young women (especially those in the entertainment industry) are very vulnerable. I’ve been in rooms with modelling agents who offer work in exchange for sex. I’ve worked with music producers who have made a move on me simply because they had the upper hand. If you are young, female and dream big you might (naively) think these men will help you. They will guide you in your career as they have the knowledge and experience to do so. But in fact the worst kinds simply take advantage. 

Even as we approach a new decade, women are still massively vulnerable. If a woman walks into a male-dominated space she generally feels unsafe. You won’t catch a man feeling worried about being surrounded by women. At gigs I’m very aware that men are everywhere and it’s so important that women should feel safe whilst watching bands and artists they love. 

Dolly Daggerz of Tokyo Taboo – photo by Cris Watkins
Dolly Daggerz of Tokyo Taboo – photo by Cris Watkins

Things hit a new low for me recently. A guy decided to grope me whilst I was walking back through the crowd after singing in the audience. This has hit me hard. When I am performing I am ‘Dolly Daggerz’: a superwoman character who is physically and mentally strong, a woman who doesn’t take any shit. I’ve dreamt up this persona that, I thought, terrible things could never happen to. So this assault felt like a kick in the face and I was so shocked I could barely react. I went from feeling strong and empowered to small and weak in an instant.  

During our ten-gig ‘Lips Can Kill’ tour I counted five instances of sexual assault and inappropriate behaviour: A man asking for a kiss who I’ve never even met before. A man actually kissing me to say goodbye. A drunk man sweeping his hands down my ass when leaving. And so on. It’s something I can shrug off at first. Maybe chat to the guys in my band about it all the next day and be like ‘weirdos…yuck’ but after a while it’s actually exhausting. Hands Off Gretel’s Lauren Tate, who spoke out publicly about this same behaviour recently, revealed that she ‘doesn’t enjoy’ touring anymore due to the harassment she receives. She claims, ‘I had guys taking the piss out of me asking if they “had the consent to kiss me now.” Disgusting.’ Speaking out about it is apparently not always very effective. Following this last assault, what’s been particularly scarring is the backlash about this awful incident online. I’ve had (a very small percentage of) people saying if I dress like a stripper and pole dance, it’s my fault. ‘Of course men will grope at you! What do you expect?’ Then lots of laughing emojis. I’ve had direct messages from fake accounts saying I ‘might as well whore myself’ and should ‘sell naked photos’ as I already ‘sell my body’. Wow, and I thought that I could dress how I wanted whilst on stage and perform how I want without any random old man touching me? Crazy thinking!  

I also read someone saying that posting about sexual assault is ‘jumping on the bandwagon’ and that some people do it to ‘seek attention’. All men commenting of course. Another female jokingly wrote that she’s unsure of why she hasn’t been assaulted herself or seen anything at shows. Maybe she’s not ‘good looking enough’ or doesn’t ‘behave in a way that attracts attention.’ Maybe because she is ‘moody and unapproachable at gigs.’ These remarks point to an underlying consensus that it’s about the victim: how they look or act might provoke assault in some way. I’m sure that since performing pole onstage I’ve received more male attention. However I have also been assaulted when walking in the street, when dancing in a club, when singing in a recording studio. I’ve been harassed whilst in full make up, no make-up, in pyjamas, in running gear. This has nothing to do with how hot someone is or what they are doing at the time of assault. If someone wants to grab flesh they will. The victim is not to blame.  

Dolly Daggerz of Tokyo Taboo – photo by Cris Watkins
Dolly Daggerz of Tokyo Taboo – photo by Cris Watkins

Let me write that again: THE VICTIM IS NOT TO BLAME. 

I’ve received hundreds of comments writing how unacceptable this incident was. And mostly men in shock and horror that someone would grab at someone else without consent. But then I’ve read a post with someone confused. ‘Why is someone who dresses so sexy upset with male attention? Stop complaining’.  

Attention is fine. Touching out of turn isn’t. 

When it comes to such a sensitive topic, I wish people would please think before commenting online. Women are made to believe they ‘deserve’ assault, rape and violence. If you dress sexy it’s ‘your own fault.’ If you pole dance or show skin expect to be groped. We are moving into a new decade where I want to encourage women to report sexual assault no matter what the outcome. I wish I had ignored my barrister friend and reported the fake A&R guy who I naively believed wanted to help me.  

Make sure you publicly support women and question the assailant not the victim. A woman could be completely naked and we still need to look at the guy who grabbed her inappropriately. It’s our human right to feel safe.  

Also, a message to young women starting out in music: some male producers are full of shit and want to take full advantage of your hopes and dreams. If it seems to good to be true, sadly, it probably is.  

What am I going to do to feel safer? I’m currently considering hiring security at our gigs (though part of me thinks this is giving in to those guys who don’t know how to behave). Maybe pepper spray in my bra somewhere, microphone in one hand whilst my other hand grips the pole? 

Find Tokyo Taboo on Facebook Patreon

Slick by name, Slick by nature

by Mollie Tie

Grace Slick has been everything at some point in her career: Sixties hippy chick icon; Seventies rock goddess; visual artist and general musical icon. With one of the most powerful and pure voices in popular music, Slick has earned her place on the list of most influential vocalists in modern music.

Grace Barnett Wing was born October 30, 1939 and spent most of her childhood moving around various parts of the state of California. This early exposure to the Golden State goes some way to explain how Slick came to typify that psychedelic 60s sound that was quintessentially West Coast. Along with The Doors; Big Brother and the Holding Company and the Grateful Dead, Grace Slick pioneered an entirely new genre of music which defines a whole decade.

Grace started her music career as the singer in the band The Great Society.  The band generated quite the following in their native California, and it was whilst singing for the band that Slick composed the song White Rabbit – THE seminal psychedelic rock song that is one of their biggest hits to this day.

In 1966, Slick left Great Society for Jefferson Airplane, attracted by the more professional way the band was run. They re-recorded and released some of their more famous songs including White Rabbit and Somebody to Love both of which became top 10 singles. Jefferson Airplane became one of the most popular bands in the country and earned Slick a position as one of the most prominent female rock musicians of her time. Although they were not a particularly political band, it was not unheard of for Slick to make a political statement-the most well known of which took place in 1968 when she ended a performance on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour by making a Black Power fist.

A personnel change in Jefferson Airplane led to Slick forming a breakaway group called Jefferson Starship whilst also releasing several solo albums. Her solo album Dreams was inspired by her experience going through a substance misuse programme and as her most personal album, was nominated for a Grammy.

Jefferson Starship had several hits – We Built This City; Sara and Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now. These songs are instantly recognisable and still incredibly popular however Slick was not happy with the musical direction and left the band in 1988.

Slick has been pretty much ensconced in retirement since the mid 1990s and mainly spends her time as a visual artist. She has been outspoken about the fact that she feels too old to maintain her position as rock goddess- in a 2007 interview, she repeated her belief that, “You can do jazz, classical, blues, opera, country until you’re 150, but rap and rock and roll are really a way for young people to get that anger out”, and, “It’s silly to perform a song that has no relevance to the present or expresses feelings you no longer have.”

Slick has been no stranger to controversy throughout her career. Her widely documented struggles with alcoholism were a cause for concern and led to some unfortunate incidents of being too inebriated to perform and being dragged off a game show after abusing the contestants.

Despite the occasional controversies, Slick’s legacy is one of an incredibly gifted singer and super cool rock chick. She was one of the earliest female rock stars with an electrifying stage presence that influenced the likes of Stevie Nicks and Joan Jett.

She was ranked number 20 on VH1’s 100 Greatest Women of Rock N Roll in 1999 and inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996.

Her vocal performance on the track Somebody to Love is one of the finest examples of rock vocals in modern music and the early Jefferson Airplane tracks that were composed by Slick provided a gold standard that rock chicks would follow for generations.

Skin and the legacy of a rock goddess

by Molly Tie

I’ve been seeing a fair bit of Deborah Dyer in the papers recently and it got me to thinking about her incredibly powerful persona and exciting career. Still relevant; still badass and still not suffering fools, Dyer (A.K.A Skin of Skunk Anansie fame) still deserves kudos for her enduring legacy and unapologetic brand of ‘clit-rock’.

We have Skunk Anansie’s Summer tour to thank for the influx of articles and interviews in which the impact and influence of the band’s musical output is re-celebrated and poured over, and in true bandwagon style I have decided to add to it. Prepare to be influxed.

Skin was born in 1967 and brought up in Brixton, South London. Her childhood was spent surrounded by music. Her grandfather ran his own drinking establishment and Skin witnessed the revelry and camaraderie that people enjoy when drinking rum and having a dance to Prince Buster. With childhood dreams of becoming a pianist, Skin was keen to pursue a career in music.

The vehicle that would propel her to worldwide fame was the band she is most famous for fronting- Skunk Anansie. Formed in 1994, Skunk Anansie were often lumped into the generic Britrock label as this was the time that ‘Cool Britannia’ was the benchmark for quality culture and British-ness was all the rage- British films; fashion and most significantly, music. Nestled in amongst the likes of Oasis, Blur and Supergrass there was a cohort of harder bands like the Prodigy who made for slightly more hardcore listening.

Skunk Anansie were widely considered to be a political band (they once declared that ‘everything is political’), a label given out due to the nature of their lyrics and Skin’s aggressive vocals. They were Britain’s answer to Rage Against the Machine. Skin has been outspoken in her belief that more musicians need to address issue of racism, sexism and homophobia and actively take a stand against it, rather than sitting on the fence. Many aspects of Skin’s image are political without even trying- she is black, she is gay and she is female. Her shaved head and flamboyant fashion was an antidote the mainstream male Brit rockers of the 1990s who intentionally cultivated a more basic, scruffy image. A strong, powerful and intelligent frontwoman was an instant inspiration for a generation of young women.

Skin was also the first black British artist to headline Glastonbury, something we all had to be reminded of when Stormzy was given the title this year.

Skunk Anansie achieved widespread critical acclaim and released a slew of successful singles including Charity; Hedonism, Weak and Charlie Big Potato. The band’s split in 2001 was not the last we saw of Skin. She went on to release two solo studio albums: Fleshwounds (2003) and Fake Chemical State (2006). As a solo artist she has supported Robbie Williams and Placebo on tour; duetted with Pavarotti in front of the Dalai Lama and was even a judge on the Italian version of the X Factor for one season.  

Skunk Anansie reformed in 2008 and have continued to be recognised for their contribution to the British rock scene. You can pick up a copy of their celebratory album 25Live@25 which was released in January this year, as well as a new single What You Do for Love – their first new single in three years.

Continuing the 25th anniversary celebrations Skunk Anansie will be touring Europe throughout the summer of 2019, headlining festivals and their own shows, finishing with a string of UK shows. For a band that have been widely regarded as one of the most exciting live bands you will ever see, it is worth trying to catch them on one of their forthcoming dates. And if you can’t get tickets to see them in person, there is still an extensive back catalogue of absolute bangers to fire you up and tear you apart.

A Musician’s Guide to Finding and working with a Manager

Guest blog by Ella Gregg, Manager of Lucy Mair, and co-founder of 321 Artists

For a musician, especially a solo-musician, the idea of introducing a manager into your project can provide a whole host of thoughts and emotions, and it can strangely be quite a lonely experience making a decision like that for your project. As an artist manager, I thought I’d talk about a few things to think about when looking for a manager, where to actually find one, and how to build your relationship together. I also asked my artist, Lucy Mair, to give her opinions too.

I personally started working in artist management at the age of 18, and fell into the role very accidentally. I was already working for an artist development platform, and through that work I was introduced to a band called Blushes who I started to get to know. I was introduced to their manager at the time, and he invited me to work with Blushes as their social media advisor and booking agent. As time progressed, I got closer to Blushes and their manager was no longer able to put time into the band which led to me managing Blushes. 

Previous to that, I had had no experience at all in artist management, but from believing in the band and being passionate about doing well for them, I worked hard to expand my knowledge and contact list, and within six months the band were featured by NME and played on BBC Radio 1. And casual artist management is becoming a lot more popular, managers aren’t sitting in big offices as a team anymore, it’s done by individual people sat on their sofa, and there is nothing wrong with that. You don’t necessarily need the most experienced manager, you just need someone who is very dedicated and passionate for your project. 

It’s important for you to think about if you necessarily need a manager. Are you at a stage where you just enjoying writing music and playing songs live, or do you want to be an artist? When you get a manager on board, you’re hiring someone to shout about your project, and there may suddenly be a lot more demand for you and your music than you’re used to. If you just want to write and play music whenever you feel like it, a manager might not be the right step for you. And that doesn’t mean you don’t take your music seriously, that just means your motivations might be different to another artist. 

Lucy Mair

Lucy Mair says “I always found it really difficult to balance the ‘corporate’ side and ‘creative’ side of music, I would constantly focus too much on just one and fall behind with the other. Having a manager means I can now almost solely focus on the creative aspects which is the side that I really love and therefore improves the quality of what I put out as I have more time to focus on the music. I knew I was ready for a manager because I knew what I wanted to create and had already established myself as an artist as I had released music with no team whatsoever around me and built the foundations for myself. I guess it is now a case of 321 [Ella Gregg’s company] helping to build on those foundations and progressing to a level of which I could not reach by myself.” 

It’s no secret that managers of emerging artists make very little money, therefore they are often the most passionate people in the music industry and they are putting a lot of time and effort into an artist purely because they believe in the artist they’re working with. For that reason, it’s absolutely vital that you’re willing to replicate that time and effort yourself. Bringing a manager into the project doesn’t mean you can kick your feet up and your manager will work around you; if anything, it intensifies the project and you will be worker even harder than before. I’ve worked with artists who have had the attitude of “I write the songs, what more do you want from me?” and safe to say, that won’t get you very far today. 

Another thing that can sometimes be difficult for artists, especially solo musicians, is the idea of passing over some control over to a manager. From the start, you’ve been the only one making the decisions for you and your project, it’s been like a baby you’ve been protecting, and now you’re passing the responsibilities onto a manager, and that can be intimidating for some people, which is absolutely understandable. A manager doesn’t set out to make your life miserable, you’re forming a partnership, which means you still have a lot of control, if not more than your manager. 

“I was a little bit nervous about passing over control, but only because I have had managers and labels in the past control what I create. The difference this time around is that, with Ella, she had already heard my music and she believed in what I was creating when I was completely in charge of my music, therefore I knew she was not going to try and change what I wrote as she wanted to work with what I was already doing. Whereas, in previous experiences, I had not released any of my own content therefore I was not sure how I wanted to sound and others had an idea of how they thought I should sound.” 

You should be prepared and capable of taking criticism or to be potentially met with negative opinions – as mentioned, you’re a partnership and your manager has your best interests at heart. If you don’t think you can take constructive criticism, it might not be the right time for you. After all, the criticism is there to help you as feedback for you to build on.

“I really enjoy feedback, I trust Ella’s opinion and never feel as if she is trying to push me towards a sound that I do not want.”

Before approaching a manager, you need to understand what you actually want to achieve, and why having a manager will approve your chances of achieving these goals. If you have vision you can share with a potential manager, this will give them a better idea of what you can do together, and it will provide the manager with the confidence that you know where you want this project to go, and shows confidence and passion for success. 

If you do think it’s the right time to find a manager, knowing where to look for one can seem tricky. As I said earlier, freelance artist managers are becoming a lot more popular and can sometimes seem hard to find. I would recommend using social media – find artists similar to you and see who they’re being managed by, maybe see if any other management companies follow them, contact smaller blogs that have featured artists similar to you and see if they recommend any managers. However, don’t forget that I said artist management is becoming a lot less formal, and the role of a manager is changing. If you have a friend who would just be able to help you keep on top of emails, or help transport you and your kit to gigs, or could advise you, that’s a lot of what a manager does. It’s about passion, not experience. And having someone you know and trust already means you’re going to feel more comfortable quicker. 

Having a manager doesn’t have to be as scary as you first thought, and it can be really useful having someone there to fight your corner and someone who will be there for you at 3am if you needed them. But a manager is as much or as little as you want it to be and it’s important to remember that bringing a manager in doesn’t detract any of your passion or power for your project. 

Visit 321 Artists and check out Lucy Mair on Spotify

Dream a little dream … of Mama Cass

by Mollie Tie

Next stop on our epic journey of re-visiting some of popular music’s underrated women, we must go back to the 1941 when Ellen Naomi Cohen was born in Maryland, USA. From birth to her untimely death in 1974, Cohen’s life had it’s harrowing difficulties along with some ground-breaking triumphs. The product of this amazing, and ultimately too short life was a body of work that includes soul, heart and sass.

Cohen is better known to the music world as Mama Cass- one quarter of the musically brilliant yet personally troubled Mamas and the Papas, as well as a successful and critically acclaimed solo artist. She was one of the figureheads of a body positivity movement before anyone even knew what that was, and was the life and soul of the trendy music scene of the 60s- partying hard and singing softly.

Cass started her pursuit of an entertainment career in New York City, trying out for musicals whilst working in cloak rooms and scraping by. She moved to Washington D.C to go to University and her arrival coincided with an American Folk renaissance which led to her joining her first band- The Big 3. The Big 3 only lasted for a couple of years (62-64) and Cass’s next venture- The Mugwumps- lasted a matter of months.

In 1965, Cass finally joined the group that would make her a worldwide star- The Mamas and the Papas. The group enjoyed worldwide success with hits such as California Dreamin’; Monday, Monday and Dedicated to the One I Love and carved out a niche in popular folk music that had mainstream appeal. Their harmonies were sophisticated, and Cass was certainly the most well-known figurehead of the group with many lead vocal roles.

The Mamas and The Papas released their final album in 1971 and Cass went on to enjoy acclaim as a solo artist as well as well-loved media personality. She was a regular on variety shows and talk shows and was booked for a 3-week residency at Las Vegas Caesars Palace. She was well regarded as having a vivacious disposition and a great sense of humour.

However, behind her sunny persona and musical success Cass experienced several turbulent events following her joining the Mamas and Papas. It is generally understood that she was in love with her band mate Denny Doherty and had even proposed marriage to him. Alas, Doherty was ensconced in an affair with Michelle Phillips (another member of the band) and a complicated love triangle ensued.  She also had her struggles with substance misuse, a situation not helped by her intense recording and performing schedules.

Despite the rollercoaster ride that was Cass’s life; her talent was always on strong ground. Vocal academics highlighted her immense vocal range and enviable control and her rendition of the 1931 song Dream a Little Dream of Me is one of the most popular versions of the classic song which has also been recorded by  Louis Armstrong; Nat King Cole; Doris Day and Michael Bublé to name a few.

Mama Cass experienced a lot of comment and speculation regarding her weight. Since her death, her daughter has spoken in interviews about the impact of fat-shaming in the press had on her mother and how this spurred her on to not only achieve her own dreams but encourage other women as well. Her Mamas and Papas bandmate Michelle Phillips remembers that Cass was always encouraging her to push herself vocally and not to let men in the music industry push her around.

She decided at 25 that she wanted to raise a child and as she was unmarried at the time, it was a bold choice to make even in the swinging 60s. She kept her pregnancy secret and by all accounts was a dedicated and loving mother to her daughter, even dedicating her song Lady Love to her:

“I have my little someone to hold onto …  a little girl to set me free. … She came along just in time / in time to ease my worried mind / and now I’ve got a little someone to hold on to.”

Tragically, Mama Cass passed away from heart failure in a London hotel room, age just 32. It was a life and musical career cut heartbreakingly short.

Her legacy lives on- not just in terms of her solo career and the example this set to subsequent female vocalists; but also the body of work the Mamas and The Papas leave behind. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998, the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2000, and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2009. Cass Elliot and Michelle Phillips, as “the Mamas”, were ranked No. 21 on the VH1 network’s list of the 100 Greatest Women of Rock- but Mama Cass will always be in my top 10. Dream a little dream…… of Mama CassHer legacy lives on- not just in terms of her solo career and the example this set to subsequent female vocalists; but also the body of work the Mamas and The Papas leave behind. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998, the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2000, and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2009. Cass Elliot and Michelle Phillips, as “the Mamas”, were ranked No. 21 on the VH1 network’s list of the 100 Greatest Women of Rock- but Mama Cass will always be in my top 10.

God save the Queen: Queen Latifah and the making of a hip-hop Renaissance woman

by Molly Tie

If democracy falls and the whole world is run by a pan-national monarchy made up of musicians with regal titles, who will rule us?  I guess the contenders are King Crimson; Prince; Duke Ellington and Queens of the Stone Age. But I hope that our supreme leader will be the indomitable Queen Latifah because her career has shown she is an irrepressible badass.

Latifah has turned her hand to all sorts of things – rap music, acting, song-writing and producing – and she has been pretty successful at all these things. Understanding Latifah’s rise to fame through a notoriously macho rap music scene makes her success even more impressive and her early credibility means we can sort of forgive her for being in a film called Taxi with Jimmy Fallon. Sort of.

Queen Latifah was born Dana Elaine Owens in New Jersey in 1970. She had a fairly standard middle-class upbringing- attending Catholic school and playing in her high school basketball team due to her height.

From the age of 18, she started beat boxing for a hip-hop outfit called Ladies Fresh. She was signed to Tommy Boy Music in 1989 and released her first single Wrath of My Madness. The song showcases themes that would be present in many of her later recordings- traditional hip-hop flexing and showboating mixed with her strong female proclamations. This would recur throughout her musical career- waving the flag for female musicians and demonstrating that women can rap with the best of them.

Her first album All Hail the Queen was released the same year as her first single and the songs were very much a chronicle of the black woman’s experience from relationships; harassment in the streets and working-class struggles. Songs like Ladies First became feminist anthems with lyrics like this:

Who said the ladies couldn’t make it, you must be blind
If you don’t believe, well here, listen to this rhyme
Ladies first, there’s no time to rehearse
I’m divine and my mind expands throughout the universe
A female rapper with the message to send the
Queen Latifah is a perfect specimen.

Latifah collaborated with a who’s who of late 80s hip hop- KRS-One, De La Soul and Monie Love and her debut album was considered a commercial success.

Latifah continued to release rap and hip-hop tracks throughout the 90s but by the early 2000s, she turned her attention towards more traditional singing. As she was a big jazz fan, she began to perform more soul and jazz music and released an album of such tracks in 2004 with The Dana Owens Album. Her 2007 album Trav’lin’ Light was nominated for a 2007 Grammy. It is a testament to her standing in the music industry that moving between different genres never lost her any of her core fans or professional credibility.

Queen Latifah is probably best known now for her acting roles. She has appeared in numerous comedy films and TV programmes, most notably Hairspray (2007); 22 Jump Street (2014) and Girls Trip (2017). She can also be seen popping up in TV shows such as 30 Rock and her own Queen Latifah Show which ran for 2 seasons.

A list of Latifah’s award nominations from the early 1990s onwards could fill a small novel and she has been recognised for her talent and integrity in most areas of the arts.

She has had her fair share of controversy although never to the same extent as some of her hip hop contemporaries such as Lil Kim or Foxy Brown. In 1996 Latifah was arrested for possession of marijuana and a handgun and then in 2002 was arrested for driving under the influence. Other than that, she has managed to keep her personal life relatively low profile and as such is known for her creative output rather than any personal turmoil.

Whether or not you’re a royalist, I think this is one Queen we can all get behind.


by Ngaire Ruth Published on The Friendly Critic on 24 May 2019



In the early spring of 1993, Kathleen Hanna, Tobi Vail, Billy Karren, and Kathi Wilcox – Bikini Kill – arrive in the UK and hang out with Niki Elliot, Jo Johnson, Karen Hill, Chris Rowley, and Jon Slade – Huggy Bear – and everything changes.

From now on, women in bands do not fuck my head up with their feminist statements that are completely missed by their boy and some of their girl fans (L7, Lunachicks and Babes in Toyland). Boys who wanna be Kurt Cobain wear tee shirts saying: “this is what a feminist looks like”. 

Did you know?

Kat Bjeland (Babes in Toyland), and Courtney Love (Hole) were introduced to music journalists in conversations that started by first establishing their relationships with cool feminist men – Stuart Gray, frontman for experimental noiseniks Lubricated Goat, and Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain – then telling us the name of their bands. It’s all so subtle, and really nice people do it: these women are cool and interesting because their men are cool and interesting. I have no plans for a musician boyfriend.

Bikini Kill, on the other hand, speak for themselves, and it’s clear they’ve got a feminist agenda which includes encouraging a relationship between bands and fans, fans and fans, for celebration, information and the organising of solutions, starting with: Girls to the Front, not just a safe space for girls and performers, but a place to bombard girls with information that they need to know. 


Girls to the Front is all about the girls at the front, but the community, the ‘experiment’ proved brilliantly free for the performers; it’s aces not having to worry where that photographer is going to point his lens next – as if we didn’t know. Also see Kat Bjelland, Babes in Toyland. Everything changes – even my opinion.

It connected to current feminist film theory of the era, meaning that the performers and musicians on stage were less likely to be subjects of the male gaze, becoming the bearer of meaning, rather than the maker of meaning

Laura Mulvey, 1974

Feminist theatre theory went as far as describing it as a spectacle of hysteria for the clinical gaze of men, referring back to Freud’s study of hysteria. According to Sara Marcus’, (2010), Girls to the Front, Huggy Bear’s Nikki, purposefully would not keep still long enough to stay in the frame, when being filmed for music TV programme The Word, a disaster by all accounts, and HG’s last tango with the mainstream media. That’s applying theory to practise! So cool. 

On another level, applying a women-only space altogether avoided too many mixed meanings or deflection of meanings. 

Feminist theatre theory was already debating the validity of any outcome, if the understanding relied on individual audience members, who bring their own cultural assumptions (that they think are natural), and will include men. A lot of feminist theatres were already opting for women-only audiences.

“Within a patriarchal culture, this exclusion may provide the only way certain elements of women’s experiences can be signified within the collective consciousness of the audience.”

Sue-Ellen Case (1988) Feminism and Theatre. 

The artistic, socio-political and musical conventions and events run under the banner LaDIYfest emerged from riot grrrl and is still a force today all over the world, a place for women to express, ask, share, laugh, mosh together in a women-only space. In the UK, BristolSheffield and Leeds are very active. 


Cuz it’s fun, it’s a good way to act out behaviours that are wrongly deemed ‘inappropriate’, this is a refutation of censorship and body fascism, this can deny taboos that keep us enslaved i.e. don’t talk about sex or rape or be sensitive or corny, to serve as a role model for other girls, to show boys others ways of doing things and that we have stuff to say; to discuss in both literal and artistic ways those issues that are really important to girls, naming these issues, specifically, validates their importance and other girls’ interest in them, reminds other girls that they aren’t alone; to make fun of thus disrupt the powers that be; it doesn’t have to be this intense dramatic self-righteous thing to affect change. It can be fun to talk about scary issues.

Kathleen Hanna (1991), Bikini Kill fanzine, A Colour and Activity Book, sourced Women Make Noise (2012)


UK’s Pussycat Trash, who formed in 1992 soon became significant players in the girl style revolution, as well as Sister George


There was no gender agenda in riot grrrl. Multiplicity, in opposition to everything presented as binery, was the idea: don’t label people by their choice of sexuality, colour or class, well-meaning but naive (and giving critics fuel for the fire with regard to building a sometimes valid argument that riot grrrl was slipping into forms of white feminism. See Part 3, No hierarchy, no rules, everyone’s learning.) There was already a healthy lesbian punk scene, a community of experienced activists who knew the value of friendship, and their integration into the riot grrrl scene was very influential. 

Jennifer (another RG who’s still an active musician in the current London underground music scene), and sister, Tammi Denitto, and Andy, of Linus, were great flag flyers of a girl-boy revolution, like Huggy Bear

“Linus the band has been a massive influence in many people’s lives yet they’re probably the most lo-fi, in terms of attitude, out of all the riot grrrl bands. Initially, it was the music that was the attraction, the first time I heard them being on the Linus 7” vinyl EP (Bone Records, 1993). But when I followed that up by seeing them live what I got was more than a great gig:

There are more girls than boys; girls running the show; girls at the door; girls doing the PR thing; girls on stage; girls giving fanzines. And they weren’t scary like the others – by which I mean I wasn’t intimated because they were ready and I was getting ready, which I often felt. Linus didn’t make me feel like that. I think they were the great levellers of that period.” 

Ngaire Ruth (2015) GIVE ME 3, Charley Stone, Jennifer Denitto and Tegan Christmas.

Other bands included Heavenly, (Sarah Records) fronted by Amelia, Blood Sausage (two of Huggy Bear) and numerous friends of RG, like Razorblade Smile, Sleeper, Cornershop


I want to find my own girl band! 


The cassette box, which arrives in an unsuspecting envelope in my pigeon hole at the Maker, is magical and sweet, decorated in florescent bold colours, words and symbols – open the box, sparkles fall out  – has nothing dark, and fearful about it. The band name, on the other hand, is in yer face and real, a thing girls don’t talk about: Toxic Shock Syndrome. Love them before I’ve heard a thing. 

They’re perfectly untarnished and genuinely interested in all contemporary music, locals at the resident music bar, The Cavern, no famous boyfriends, or well-placed friends in music journalism. They want input much more than they want fame; I relate.

One night I join Toxic Shock Syndrome on stage, at the Bull & Gate, London, wearing the second-hand wedding dress vocalist and guitarist Ronnie has acquired for me, with instructions to kill the plastic baby doll on ‘the eye’. This was tremendously exciting, having friends, and I wasn’t really looking and cut my hand. I’m proud to say that Ronnie reports the dress still has my blood on it. It marks an important night, it’s like I made some kind of girls in rock who are radical feminists pact with these women. 

I take Charley to her first riot grrrl event, Huggy Bear, and encourage her to make contact with riot grrl band Linus, it’s a brave new world. She goes back to Exeter and pastes riot grrrl flyers and her own power statements all over the place, and reads the fanzines she’s collected. 

Ngaire Ruth with Toxic Shock Syndrome 1993 Bull & Gate by Mick Mercer
Toxic Shock Syndrome with Ngaire Ruth 1993 by Mick Mercer

Frantic Spiders are four ordinary girls, including two of TSS.  This is a celebration of girls voices, loud guitars, and new friends. Riot grrrl is in the UK! I think guitarist Charley Stone will move to London and forever be part of the music scene, changing lives, putting it out there, an accomplished and adored lead guitarist. This happens. I write about Frantic Spiders for the Maker. I love that they talk about their instruments. Guitarist Charley Stone has two guitars and names them Charlotte and Emily. This is fresh and thrilling for me, and hard to imagine if you’re a girl guitar ACM student carrying your baby around with you all day and assuming every woman guitarist has been like that for all time. There were no contemporary music schools for girls yet – the riot grrrl rock schools were the first. 

Frantic Spiders release one of the best singles of that era ‘You’re Dead’. 

“Riot grrrl actually changed a lot of lives, it was a key galvanising moment which got loads more women playing the guitar, changed the way we thought about ourselves and made a new space for women to not just be the “queen bee”, the token woman-in-rock, the Suzi Quatro in a man’s world. The effects were far wider reaching than any reading of chart/music press success would indicate.”

Charley Stone (2019)


Artist, dancer and filmmaker Lucy Thane filmed the whole Bikini Kill UK tour and produced a documentary, which includes conversations with fans and contributions from Bikini Kill, Huggy Bear, Sister George and the Raincoats

Are you in a band?” they ask Layla Gibbon (15), Flossy White and Esme Young (14).

“Yes!” they reply with enthusiasm, lying out of teenage embarrassment.

Then they went home and they were a band, calling themselves Skinned Teen. Everybody wished they were a Skinned Teen, the first band in the UK to only exist in the world thanks to Riot Grrrl.

Listen to ‘Secrets’, off the vinyl double single ‘Some Hearts Paid to Lie, Automation and Communication’ featuring UK riot grrrl bands Linus, Pussycat Trash, Comet Gain and Skinned Teen (Wiiija, 1993) 

FACT FANS: Comet Gain included Huggy Bear Jon Slade.   

“A huge part of it was communication. Pre-internet, zines, pen-pals, flyers, all connecting girls with each other as never before. Never before did such targeted, individual to individual, personal, emotional, political communication proliferate, city to city, village to town, country to country. It was awesome to see. It was wonderful. It was an awakening that never went away, and now we have Decolonise Fest and Bent Fest and First Timers and Loud Women and all the outlaws are hooking up and it is marvellous for an old lady to see, having seen it from 1993 with my own daughter’s awakening and band. Girls respecting and supporting each other instead of competing, bullying or disparaging. love riot grrrls and Riot Grrrl. It never went away.”

Pearl Pelfrey, a Skinned Teen mum (May 2019)


You’re about to enter a whole new world; an absolute treasure trove of information, ideas, symbolic images and sketches, a fandom that is not adoration, but engaged and articulate in its representation.

Fanzines are synonymous with music, but they’re also a whole subculture by themselves, and zine writers, the true archivists of contemporary culture. Originally the realm of science fiction fans, who started to fall in love with rock n roll, they’re fun, imaginative, and full of information beyond the mainstream sources about your politics, rights, interests, favourite band, scene or genre. 

The infamous Oz magazine – taken to court for obscenity charges (in the magazine) – and Rolling Stone magazine, with Hunter S Thompson as its political editor, talking anti-Vietnam with John Lennon, both started out as the underground press, DIY projects with an agenda that sought to challenge the structure of things. Boys Own fanzine, launched in 1986, about clubbing, football, tales of cocks shaped like a carrot, and clothes, did not a revolution make – influencing the consumer magazines for men, such as Loaded, which boomed in the 90s, pre-digital. 

The psychedelic fanzines may seem more flippant and indulgent compared to the famously political and poetic hardcore punk fanzines, such as Sniffin’ Glue, but there’s no doubt that zines like Gong’s championed a new way of life outside the system just the same. Gilli Smyth and Daevid Allen, of Gong fame, met during the Paris 1968 riots and had to flee the city (Huggy Bear’s beloved Situationism). 

“She met Allen in Paris where she was teaching at the Sorbonne. The pair, united by political motivations, performed a guerilla gig during the 1968 student riots, which led to them having to flee the city. Together, they set up the Gong community: a collective of musicians, artists, poets and writers.”

Ngaire Ruth, (2016) Gilli Smith remembered, an obituary dedicated to an underrated lyrical luminary, The Girls Are 

In my opinion, the difference with Riot Grrrl and its relationship with fanzines is this: the bands and many of those involved front of house and behind the curtain, were running and writing for zines before they were in bands. Music was a medium for the message, and the mediation process (where it can all go wrong due to other skilled contributors, and collaborators, with different viewpoints and assumed cultural attitudes), maintained a clear feminist agenda, from inception to outcome. Hurray!

This doesn’t happen in mainstream media: photographers, subs, editors, production teams all contribute to the final piece of writing on the page and can change the meaning, demean a point of view or the subject of the writing. Consequently, riot grrrl is not a fan of the British music press or the broadsheets on either side of the Atlantic.

In the early 90s, bands started to use fanzines as a promotional tool, a way of making people feel they belonged to a club with shared values and lifestyle, and the privilege of direct access to the latest news about their favourite artists. This resulted in watered-down fanzines, with little comment, original art, or effort in the writing. 

The post-punk DIY underground press and the music scene had dissipated as all the indie bands sought to sign to majors  – bringing us to the generic insipid form of indie recognised by the mainstream today. Melody Maker and NME were no longer gatekeepers of contemporary music culture, but music scouts for the majors.


Bikini Kill zine, thanks to University of Iowa,

Bikini Kill came out of Jigsaw, and Bikini Kill, the zines, Bratmobile came out of the fanzine Girl Germs. Many of the women who helped shape riot grrrl were writers before they were musicians in cool grrrl bands. Layla Gibbon of Skinned Teen, the first original riot grrrl band in the UK and inspired by the experience of Bikini Kill in the UK live in 1993, at 15, went on to write for MaximumRockNRoll where she recruited many more women writers into the citadel of macho hardcore music. 

Tobi Vail has been writing zines for over 20 years, starting out in 1988/89 with Jigsaw. The legacy retells how she would use the expression angry grrrl zines. Like many of the riot grrrls, Tobi has taken some pains to archive her material and comment in a blog – this link goes right back through the decades and up to 2013, at the time accessed [May 2019].

girl germs
bikini kill zine

According to legend, riot grrrls “deliberately used grrrl instead of girl to remove the passive association with the word girl, as well as to display the anger behind the movement, reminiscent of a growl”. Rosenburg, (1998), RiotGrrrl-Revolutions-From-Within.

Jen Smith, musician, artist and zine writer, is credited with being the inspiration behind the term riot grrrl.

While living in Washington DC she wrote to Girl Germs about the riots happening in her city, predicting a girl riot for the upcoming summer. Bratmobile moved to Washington DC and Jen joined the band, proposing they do a zine called Girl Riot.  Molly Neumann began the zine, with contributions by Jen, Allison, and members of Bikini Kill, who had also relocated to Washington D.C. (Jen Smith, ZineWiki)  

Angry grrrl fanzines excelled. Every slogan, article, sound byte and image in these zines reflected a fresh and relatable political agenda; for RG, a feminist viewpoint, great zine names, and a sense that feminism is fun. Examples are Riot Grrrl, Jen Smith’s Red Rover, Nerd Girl, Impossible Schizoid Girl, GERLL Press. Trouble Girls, Red Stocking

Subjects included poetry and short stories, grrrl manifestos, news of girl band gigs, workshops, new RG chapters or other fanzines, alongside slogans, images and articles about body image and consciousness, women’s health,  rock music and punk music, violence against women, sexual identity, homosexuality, and bisexuality.

Sara Marcus, in Girls to the Front (2010), includes a list of fanzines related to riot grrrl in the 90s but there are countless other fanzines out there, written by girls (and boys) that just did it, for a month, a year or so, stored in shoeboxes, or dusty folders, in picture frames, and record shop walls, all over America, UK, Europe, Canada and Australia. Anyone could/can be a riot girl or boy.


Write about what you love, what’s important to you and lace everything with a distinct personal point of view that your future tribe can identify with. It’s all about sharing the love, communicating and celebrating action/reaction through words, art, music.

It’s something you can do on your own without any money, all you have to do is write it, photocopy it, staple it together, and give it out for free, or sell it super cheaply, at the next gig you’re at. They work better in the company of friends who can also write, draw, sketch, organise and administrate.

Serious fanzines had PO boxes or even home addresses for people to send a self-addressed stamped envelope inside another, with a cheque for everything from one Pound to three. It worked – less instant than new media and there was something in the waiting, the one copy, the commitment it takes to organise SAE’s. 

what is a zine? rg archive RED STOCKING
Enter a caption



Girl love in the UK went the same way as it did in the States, triggering a sudden influx of women singer-songwriters, musicians, artists and designers, new writing in fanzines and magazines, books, documentaries, academic theory and writing, managers, independent press agents, sound engineers, and producers. 

Where there had once been a dearth of women represented in a usual band environment – live shows, rehearsals, studio time –  and therefore open to more everyday sexism from the fans, colleagues, promoters, and other bands, now there was majority women, on the stage, behind the scenes and in the audience.

Here’s a flyer from a Leicester chapter

Leicester riot grrrl zine 90s

The girls and boys who joined the Leeds, UK Riot Grrrl chapter, founded by Karen Ablaze, creator of the fanzine Ablaze!  put on shows, “made more fanzines, and formed bands”. (Cherie Turner, 2001) Karren went on to form Coping Saw and Whack Cat

“This is how I felt girl love turn into girl action,” explained Karen Ablaze to Cherie Turner (2001) The Riot Grrrl Movement, The Feminism of a New Generation

karrens book

Karren now owns her own publishing company and reviews of her book, The City is Ablaze! The story of a post-punk pop-zine, a collection of ten issues of Ablaze! crammed together in a big book you can keep proudly on a shelf, got rave reviews with titles like Karren Ablaze made the best pop-zine ever! 

There had always been a boys club in the underground, at last girls united in common goals. We could make a commitment to a long-term, alternative lifestyle, outside the system, because riot grrrl created the options of a global, national, and local community to which we belonged.  Whoop!


No one waited to be told/asked. I’ve heard stories of girls going into major newsagents and slipping riot grrrl feminist manifestoes and flyers between the pages of the girly mainstream magazines. New chapters hosted their own riot grrrl events in their local towns and cities. Bands and billings began to support new charities (to rock’n’roll), such as women who’ve suffered domestic abuse, campaigns to fight the anti-abortionists, the bully promoter, the indifferent sound engineer. 

Jennifer and sister Tammi from Linus set up a post box for girls who wanted to launch their own zine. Their own fanzine was called  It’s Unofficial. Jen’s philosophy was if you wanted to be a riot grrrl you were one. 

“You didn’t need to sign up to anything. You just got out of bed and you said, ‘I am.’ I had the idea that if you told two friends, your two friends told two friends, you could really change the world.”

Jennifer Denitto, interview with Sara Marcus, (2010) Girls to the Front.



Riot Grrrl feminism is anti-capitalist, does not judge women by how much power they’ve achieved in the system, or by financial success. Huggy Bear was also concerned that the whole ethic of punk was getting lost, as indie bands raced to become mainstream indie pop stars and get a major deal, and a house in the country.

“If we don’t challenge the unhealthy forms of competitiveness that capitalism breeds, or the way it teaches us to objectify ourselves to each other, then we’re just selling ourselves out … We need to at least create new structures and new ways of dealing with things.”  Kathleen Hanna (1998), interview extract, Punk Planet magazine, sourced Cherie Turner, The Riot Girl Movement.


The boys found riot grrrl’s feminism easy to relate to because it adopted everything good about punk, loud, rebellious, and most of all, the do it yourself ethic, a place to belong outside the system in a community using anger as an energy.  

Ian McKay, (Fugazi, Minor Threat), produced the first Bikini Kill EP, Revolution Girl Style Now! (1991, demo format, re-issued by Bikini Kill records, with unreleased material, 2015). Nation of Ulysses were massive supporters of the girl bands, as were Nirvana and Mudhoney.

Even though both riot grrrl and punk had the drive to make new structures at its root, the traditional typology of a rock and roll band – in it together, a gang, shared viewpoints and lifestyle choices – still fit in with riot grrrl philosophy as it did with the punk movement. Except people didn’t always have shared backgrounds. This made some elements of riot grrrl utopia difficult on a day to day basis, as it did in the days of punk.  


Punk had shown mainstream a new kind of representation of women singer-songwriters, and musicians, as individual performers with anger, outrage, and an alternative style and fashion.

Poly Styrene of X-Ray Spex, showed us how to delight in the fury. Frontwomen such as Pauline Murray, of Penetration, Debbie Harry, of Blondie and Siouxie Sioux, of Siouxie and the Banshees, Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders, were all super sexy women in full control (this is not aspirational for a teen girl, in general). They were one woman in a band of men, and that’s how they seemed to like it. Even my own icons did not escape this comparison, Patti Smith, and my alter-ego heroine Gilly Smyth (from Gong) referred to as the Mother of the men. Moe, drummer of Velvet Underground, and older than the pack, was a welcome exception.

The confident girls were inspired to pick up instruments and formed punk bands and girl guitar bands though – such as the still current, Raincoats, out about a feminist agenda from the start, and author and philosopher Lucy O’Brien’s band The Catholic Girls. Lucy went on to join the NME team. My copy of Lucy’s She Bop, The definitive history of women in rock, pop and soul (1995), is much loved and used, currently has 11 bright green post-it notes marking pages full of need to know things. (FACT FANS: more recently, Lucy hosted two in-conversation shows with Celeste Bell, Poly Styrene’s daughter, The Poly Styrene Story.) There was all girl gang supporting The Clash called The Slits, who really showed us something entirely new. Both these punk bands were for dancing, The Slits using a dub backbone to their punk, and signed to Chris Blackwell’s Jamaican Island label, at the time one of the largest independent labels, and starting to make a move on the UK music scene. The band Mudhoney used the idea from The Slits debut album image Cut (Island 1979), ten years later for the single, You Got It (Keep It Outta My Face) b/w Burn It Clean (SubPop 1989).

Even nearer to the riot grrrl era, and influential, were the women bassists because that was one of the few ways in, Tiny Weymouth, Talking Heads, Kim Gordan of Sonic Youth, Josephine Wiggs of That Perfect Disaster (later of Breeders fame), Gina Birch (Raincoats).

An alternative rock band, Ut, compared to The Fall by John Peel, were my first review in the mainstream music press the Melody Maker, November 1989. I realised my perception of the women-powered band was completely different to the boy journalists when I read the album review of the band by a colleague. That night I wrote my own manifesto, just in time for the arrival of the US girl bands, Lunachicks, L7 and Babes in Toyland and the boy grunge bands, Tad, Mudhoney, Nirvana.


Kat Bjelland, drummer Lori Barbero and bassist Michelle Leon, (replaced by Maureen Herman in 1992), Babes in Toyland, were filling out the Brixton Academy in 1990, played Reading 1991. Through the album cover, Fontanelle (Reprise, 1992) and the EP Painless (Reprise, 1993) I learnt about artist Cindy Sherman because the artwork pays homage.

Babes in Toyland rebellion comes in the form of delightful confusion: an accomplished hardcore sound from a pre-riot grrrl band who are majority women, women powered too, an unrelenting force as musicians, performing live in the kind of pretty flowery dresses made for skipping through sun-kissed cornfields. Vocalist and guitarist, Kat with her Snow White hair and bright red lipstick is a force. This is new and preparation for what’s to come. It ties in with the current academic trend to deconstruct fairy tales, as a patriarchal conspiracy, e.g. they don’t want us to go off the path – what happens is Kat Bjelland. Some tales of the riot grrrl legacy claim that Bikini Kill’s Kathleen Hanna admired and was influenced by Babes in Toyland. Kat joined Crunt in 1993, with husband, Stuart Gray, another crazy and wonderful Jon Spencer (Blues Explosion) project. 


Ngaire_MM_1993.10.02_live-review_Babes-In-Toyland_A4 (1).jpg
lunachicks babysitters on acid lp cover

Gina Volpe, Theo Kogan, Sydney Silver and Sindi Benezra, New York’s Lunachicks, are also the bomb, musically and as performers, tongue in cheek rather than angry. With regard to the modelling of cool girls rocking out, and the success of debut album Babysitters On Acid (1990, Blast), Lunachicks changed lives for many women who love loud guitars. Blast records were the baby of Mute records, which came out of punk and ended up being acquired by E.M.I. records (2002), then returned to an independent label again (2010), with EMI keeping the archive catalogue. Ouch.


Apparently, Kat Bjelland and Courtney Love are mates. Or not mates. Which means there’s some element of truth to a real relationship.

There are references to Babes in Toyland’s ‘Bruise Violet’ being about Courtney. And Courtney’s ‘Violet’ being about Kat. At least we know that the entire conversation didn’t revolve around their cool boyfriends. (A current film feminist theory is the Bechdel Technique: are there two women on the screen taking up space, and not talking about men?)

Nina Simone and Anita O’Day, a lesser known jazz singer and drug addict, used to score together; friends in a crazy world of shit consequences for both that was none of their doing. The all-girl band Lunachicks were first introduced to Mute by Kim Gordan’s Sonic Youth, (also with Blast). Crissi Hynde met Joan Jett when one was beginning their career, and the other thought her life in music was over because she had given up on herself. Girl love changes everything.



I have feminist friends! Awesome vocalist Lesley, re Silverfish, an art student dancing hard in her DM’s, and ramshackle Th’ Faith Healers, fronted by Roxanne, a hippy girl in a punk band with razor-blade guitars, an excellent combo. Now at least when a girl’s in a band of men, the men can be feminists too.


I go on tour with Silverfish in a silver bus. We are slowly being poisoned by fumes getting back into the bus, but we look cool going all the way to Scotland from north London. We roll down green hills together and eat good home cooking at Lesley’s mum’s Scottish B & B.

The Faith Healer’s Roxanne makes me a badge with her own craft set with the words GIRL POWER on it. Life on the underground live circuit is good. (FACT FANS: Silverfish member Fuzz is the resident sound engineer at a well known Camden venue these days.)

We talk about P. J. Harvey and the women bands in the States.

Juliana Hatfield by Steve Gullick for Melody Maker, 1993. Ngaire Ruth’s own archives.

Julianna Hatfield has also come out saying she’s not a feminist, an American artist on a cool label (Mammoth). I share my copy of the Melody Maker, August 8th, specifically the Julianna Hatfield album review of Hey Babe, and the photo comment, which is bigger than the capped artist name, the brilliant photographer or, the writer’s name, David Bennum. SCHWWWING! There is no big band musical influence or bell features in the album. I wonder why she thinks she doesn’t need feminism?



A lot of the current UK bands are with the new independent labels, Wiiija and Too Pure, the latter is also the promoter of the Sausage Machine @ The White Horse, Hampstead, referenced in Part 1. Wiiija’s riot grrrl bands are handled by Olympia’s Kill Rock Stars label, and viz-a-viz.

lida words

A band called Tsunami and an American label, Simple Machines, founded by singer and guitarist Jenny Toomey and run with bandmate Kristin Thomson, is a lovely thing to discover. I’m also a little bit in love with anything that comes out of the New York Shimmy Disc label, owned by musician Kramer. One of his artists, Lida Husik, stays at my north London flat during a short UK visit to vaguely promote her album, and leaves me the most fabulous thank you present: Angry Women, (1991) The inscription reads:

Next, Part 3

Media: Ngaire Ruth’s playlist

Text: What happened next

  • No hierarchy, no rules, everyone’s learning – white feminism 😦 
  • Girl rock schools!
  • It lives! – my POV 


Feature pic: Huggy Bear, thanks to

Angry Women, (1991) Andrea Juno and V. Vale, ed, Re/Search publications

Case, Sue-Ellen, (1988), Feminism & Theatre, MacMillan: London

Kathleen Hanna (1991), Bikini Kill fanzine, A Colour and Activity BookWomen Make Noise(2012), Julia Downes ed, Riot Grrrl, Ladyfest and Rock Camps for Girls, p265.

Kathleen Hanna, Interview extract, Punk Planet magazine, sourced Cherie Turner, The Riot Girl Movement, The Rosen Publishing Group: New York, p13.

Lucy O’Brien, (1995), She Bop, The definitive history of women in rock, pop + soul, Penguin Group.

Sara Marcus,(2010) Girls to the Front, This is happening without your permission, Harper Perennial: New York, p260

J. Rosenberger & G. Garofano (1998) Riotgrrrl: Revolutions from Within,[accessed May 2019]

Ngaire Ruth live review Heavenly, Nelories, Razorblade Smile, Pussycat Trash, Waccamole, Sarah Records archives [accessed May 2019]

Ngaire Ruth, (2016) Gilli Smith remembered, an obituary dedicated to an underrated lyrical luminary, the girls are [accessed May 2019] 

Ngaire Ruth (2015) GIVE ME 3, Charley Stone, Jennifer Denitto and Tegan Christmas [accessed May 2019]

Cherie Turner (2001) The Riot Grrrl Movement, The Feminism of a New Generation, Rosen Publishing: New York, p36 [accessed May 2019] 

Sarah Wood Zine Collection, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University [accessed May 2019]

Bikini Kill released an EP Revolution Girl Style Now! (1991, Kill Rock Stars), and two albums Pussy Whipped (1993, Kill Rock Stars), which includes ‘Rebel’ , no 27 in Rolling Stone’s list of Most Excellent Songs of Every Year since 1967. Later, Reject All American (1996)